Modern medium-sized broiler slaughter plants. In recent decades, 'b port workers and equipment conditions have greatly improved, but people are still concerned about the processing of poultry products foodborne illness. In order to strictly control the microbial contamination of the various stages of processing, the current implementation of the Hazard Analysis Control Point concept HACCP off chain in Europe, North America and Japan and other countries: HazarMAnM ~ isCfiti ~ ntmlPoint. (HACCP) system of hazard analysis and critical control point management, which is the United States during the 1960s, space development plan, highly responsible for the security of the universe of food microbiology, hygiene management cooperative development. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points management (HACCP) from the broiler breeding to production, processing, consumption may be due to stage the whole pathogenic microorganisms herein are analyzed against such an occurrence, and set in the various stages of the critical control points and measuring, improving, management determines the status of each control point, in order to produce safe chicken products, improve the health level of broiler slaughter plants.
1. Hanging Chicken
Chicken carcass hanging is the first step to prevent contamination. Hanging at the chicken must be separated from the slaughter plant. Modern chicken plant should be kept hanging low light and equipped with computer control, can automatically complete gross weight, tare weight, the number of dead chickens, chickens and other measuring the number of work, and can automatically print breakdown, summary printed. Check whether chickens should normally have the disease, the skin and around the anus and fecal contamination. When the light caught the chicken hanging hanging light, to prevent mechanical damage, and should feet while hanging on a hook.
Bloodletting accurately cut the carotid artery bleeding, avoid cutting the trachea esophagus. There are at least 2.5-3 minutes bleeding time, reduce pollution chicken scalding water, blood is about 40% to 50% of the total blood volume.
Epilation scalding water to keep clean, running water and use frequently changes the water, changing the water at least 1 liter of water per bird, in order to reduce the number of microorganisms in the water. Most manufacturers use the water temperature of 59-61C, time 40 to 90 seconds, while the United States and Europe prefer a lower temperature (51-54C, 90-120 seconds). E. coli can be scalding hot quickly killed, but easy to make boiled brisket, skin discoloration or loss. Improve low favorable final product appearance and color of carcass scalding temperature, but there will be the presence of Salmonella, increase opportunities for cross-contamination. At present, some countries add detergent or chlorine preparation in hot water, can reduce pollution mutual chicken. Scalding water temperature and the E. coli relations in Table 6-1
Depilation hair removal machine is available for two consecutive chicken, sub off the hairs off the machine and the machine ovo. Epilation hair removal procedure provided in the upper end of the spray water, although can improve the playing , but the environmental conditions and the aerosol device itself factors, microbial still easy to breed and settled in the machine, thus requiring between scalding and hair removal and other processing rooms are separated by water chlorination agents to repeatedly rinse chicken.
4. The removal of internal organs
Large chicken slaughter plant, generally use automated harvesting organs giblets removed, usually by the automatic cutting machine anal, abdominal machines and automatic machine automatic evisceration of three parts. It can also be manually operated to disembowelling. Visceral removal process, preventing intestinal damage, digestive tract contents and bile can not be contaminated chicken carcasses, bowel injury allowed the chicken hanging in the surface. In order to reduce carcass contamination of water with sufficient pressure in the process of harvesting organs with repeated washing inside and outside the carcass, which is aimed at bacteria firmly attached to the surface of the carcass before the elimination of bacterial contaminants.
After cooling the rinse chicken carcass should be cooled quickly into the cold water bath containing a stirring device. Continuous immersion and cooling can reduce the amount of bacteria on carcasses. Cooling water tank operating in two stages, namely the pre-cooling and final cooling. Pre-cooling water temperature controlled at below 5 ℃, in order to reduce the carcass temperature slowly to prevent the muscle fibers shorten and cause rapid aging of meat. Broiler must move in the opposite direction to the flow, so that the chickens always in contact while on the move most clean water, cooling water kept clean at more than 1 liter of water per bird. Pre-cooling time of the total cooling time evening 1/2 2/3 households. Final cooling usually ice or cold water plus 1/3 cooling water, frequently changes the sanitary water temperature maintained at 0-2 ℃ cooling water, more than 1.5 liters of water per bird was cooled chicken body temperature was lowered to the center of the chest muscles 5 ℃ or less. The total cooling time should be less than 30 minutes. Despite the attention to water sanitation, but still soaking method for cooling a potential cause of cross-contamination.
In order to ensure the quality of the chicken carcass in the UK using cooling water chlorination, residual chlorine in the water to keep 45 to 50 mg thousand grams, the cooling water can no E. coli and other bacteria, and reduce the chance of cross-contamination
To prevent cross-contamination of bacteria in the cooling, the need to constantly change the water and add chlorine preparations. Besides the removal of organs after cooling with water, due to absorption of the carcass 6% to 10% moisture, so that the occurrence of dripping carcass and lower quality. Currently in Europe and some countries have already switched to cold air cooling method, this method prevents cross-contamination due to hanging and non-absorbent. 6. Drain the chicken body cooling is complete, the drain 2-3 minutes, the birds neck hanging conveyor chain given away the next step segmentation. Such as whole chicken packaging after drained by automatic weighing, squeeze out excess air into packing tape tightly enclosed pocket, low temperature frozen.