Situation and explore large-scale pig
Pig Production in the production of animal husbandry in China has been playing a pivotal position, how pig production status, a direct impact on the region and the whole country economic development of animal husbandry and livestock owners. Therefore, how to find a reasonable stage of production and business model to improve production efficiency pig, better to avoid the risk of swine, it has been an issue at all levels of government and the majority of pig producers are concerned. Theoretical and empirical science pigs developed countries are telling us, to improve production efficiency, reduce business risks most reasonable approach is to expand the scale of production. For example, the United States in the last six years, pig owners dropped by half, to expand the size of an average year, in 1997, the nation's slaughter of more than ten thousand producers accounted for 53%, while the slaughter in 2000 accounted for only 17% or less. In our current situation, we can not simply copy the mode of production in developed countries, but the proper development of a number of large-scale farming, will help improve the technological level of production, thereby increasing production efficiency fundamentally, this has been our government departments are always He advocated.
Situation 1 scale pig
Due to historical reasons, in the form of pig production is relatively simple, divided into rural backyard farmers and large-scale pig farms in two forms. Wherein backyard farmers, although there is a low level of management, breeding, backward technology, poor pig breeds, there is a large production of blindness and other shortcomings, but because it is to some extent alleviated the rural surplus labor and surplus food and cash income and the relative lack of contradictions in China's vast rural area has a strong vitality. Due to the large rural population, 90% of the country's commercial pigs from rural backyard. In sharp contrast, China's large-scale pig farms to provide only about 10% of the pig. Although in recent years the rapid development of large-scale breeding, China's 50 large-scale pig farms is only only 13%. Breeding sow herd basis of 500 or more accounted for only 11.5%. Overall, the low level of development in the country of several major pig producing provinces, the scale pig farms in the province pig production proportion is very small. Only a relatively high level of science and technology culture in some areas only account for a large proportion of the scale of farming, such as the proportion of Beijing-Tianjin region, the scale of farming accounted for 60%, the proportion of the size of farms and even in Beijing to account for the total 80 %.
2 problems in practice
To establish the scale of pig farms, operators will need to take a lot of money, if a loss poor management, will make it difficult to sustain, so the anti-risk ability is one important indicator. But in practice, since 1998, a landslide pig, not all scale pig farms reflects a good ability to resist risks. Sichuan Province, according to statistics in pig production fluctuation period from the beginning of 1998, the annual pig slaughter in 1000 are above breakeven or profit. The head of tens to hundreds of farms can not be maintained. In the pig farm basis sows basically at 200 following a loss, more than 500 basis sow herd breeding farms can have a certain ability to resist risks. Mainly reflected in: ① funding large-scale pig farms is relatively strong, strong bearing capacity; ② low feed sources of wide price, you can have more choice; ③ high level management personnel and raising the quality of the team, the use of new technologies more; ④ set up their own sales channels in the development process, even has its own pork slaughtering and processing enterprises. It would appear that only farms achieve a higher level of scale and has a more stable sales channels, in order to show more advantages in the business, it has more ability to resist risks. But with the expansion of production scale, followed by the fixed costs of production and improve the liquidity requirements increase, and reduced the company's anti-risk. In the general fund of the relative lack of conditions, we must find a new mode of production and management to resolve this conflict.
Explore 3 new models
The advantages of large-scale farms is stable, efficient, high technology, wide distribution channels, the drawback is the large fixed costs and working capital requirements. At the same time build a considerable scale farms need large amounts of capital investment, which at this stage of pig production is a certain degree of difficulty, on the contrary, retail pig less investment, less capital-intensive, but there is a vulnerable blow, low-tech, information-poor, blind production and other shortcomings. If they could join them, learn from each other will have a very good value for money. We wish to introduce in the industrialization of agriculture is often mentioned in the "company + farmers" mode of operation. In this new type of cooperation in the economic scale pig way, led by the leading enterprises and rural farmers signed a purchase contract, the enterprise responsible for providing piglets reared provide technical guidance and to a certain purchase price of fattening pigs; farmers responsible for Press-Enterprise scientific farming methods provide feeding fattening pigs, so as to meet corporate standards. Rural farmers added to extend the chain of large farming enterprises, potentially expand the production scale of existing enterprises. The expansion of this size, but reduces the breeding business in this part of the funds used, so that the company can put more money, manpower information gathering, research improved varieties of pigs, new farming technologies, market development, and deep-processing products, etc., to overcome a long time, pig production and product processing, marketing and consumption phase bridge the gap between the conventional pig breeding center for the labor-intensive pig industry into technology and information as the core, in the deep processing of relying on technology-intensive industries, in order to better guide the production, to reduce blindness and reduce operational risks. Meanwhile, the sale of security, rural farmers only need to take advantage of lower production cost advantage to complete pig breeding, but no worries. After huge profits by selling businesses returned to production processes, companies and farmers can derive maximum profit and reduce the risk to a minimum. This form should be said that industrialization is more suitable for our basic national conditions at the present stage. The key to this model is that businesses and farmers to establish good credit mechanism, signed a purchase contract production, pig shared risk, not just technical or pigs play the role of provider, to really protect the interests of pig farmers. In the traditional scale pig farms operating in the pig breeding is very important part, but now this culture model requires more and more companies invest in pig breeding, market development, product deep processing, in constant competition in the market only this real production, supply and integration of specialized production enterprises can be based on, but only a single production-scale farms in the continuing cyclical fluctuations, will gradually decrease.
Scale pig pig production is the inevitable trend of development. It can not because the current weakness in the price of pigs in trauma suffered deny its value. In the current economic austerity conditions, particularly in the face of China's accession to WTO ordeal, we should strive to explore new business models, take full advantage of existing strengths, to take the measures a variety of business forms, to more rational organization pig production, sales, in order to improve pig production efficiency and reduce risk. The only way to make the pig industry continued to move forward, in order to truly have the ability to remain invincible in the increasingly fierce global competition.